Evaluating digital open source imagery: A guide for judges and fact-finders

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WITNESS; Open Society Justice Initiative; Swansea University; Queen Mary University of London; Mnemonic; Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Hertie School, and the Bonavero Institute of Human Rights, University of Oxford
Publication Date
May 24, 2024
Publication Type
Conflict, International Criminal Law, Investigations Program, Technology


The guide, based largely on the Berkeley Protocol on Digital Open Source Investigations, is intended to assist judges and other decision makers in their assessment of open source photographs and videos during investigations, and is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Ukrainian. It is organized around several key issues that a court or fact-finding body may need to address in their own evaluation of open source imagery evidence, including determining the authenticity of the digital image, and analyzing relevant metadata, source, location, and time information.


This guide is available in EnglishFrenchSpanishArabic and Ukrainian.